The Academic Word List (AWL)

Headwords of the Academic Word List

abandon, abstract, academy, access, accommodate, accompany, accumulate, accurate, achieve, acknowledge, acquire, adapt, adequate, adjacent, adjust, administration, adult, advocate, affect, aggregate, aid, albeit, allocate, alter, alternative, ambiguous, amend, analogy, analyse, annual, anticipate, apparent, append, appreciate, approach, appropriate, approximate, arbitrary, area, aspect, assemble, assess, assign, assist, assume, assure, attach, attain, attitude, attribute, author, authority, automate, available, aware, behalf, benefit, bias, bond, brief, bulk, capable, capacity, category, cease, challenge, channel, chapter, chart, chemical, circumstance, cite, civil, clarify, classic, clause, code, coherent, coincide, collapse, colleague, commence, comment, commission, commit, commodity, communicate, community, compatible, compensate, compile, complement, complex, component, compound, comprehensive, comprise, compute, conceive, concentrate, concept, conclude, concurrent, conduct, confer, confine, confirm, conflict, conform, consent, consequent, considerable, consist, constant, constitute, constrain, construct, consult, consume, contact, contemporary, context, contract, contradict, contrary, contrast, contribute, controversy, convene, converse, convert, convince, cooperate, coordinate, core, corporate, correspond, couple, create, credit, criteria, crucial, culture, currency, cycle, data, debate, decade, decline, deduce, define, definite, demonstrate, denote, deny, depress, derive, design, despite, detect, deviate, device, devote, differentiate, dimension, diminish, discrete, discriminate, displace, display, dispose, distinct, distort, distribute, diverse, document, domain, domestic, dominate, draft, drama, duration, dynamic, economy, edit, element, eliminate, emerge, emphasis, empirical, enable, encounter, energy, enforce, enhance, enormous, ensure, entity, environment, equate, equip, equivalent, erode, error, establish, estate, estimate, ethic, ethnic, evaluate, eventual, evident, evolve, exceed, exclude, exhibit, expand, expert, explicit, exploit, export, expose, external, extract, facilitate, factor, feature, federal, fee, file, final, finance, finite, flexible, fluctuate, focus, format, formula, forthcoming, found, foundation, framework, function, fund, fundamental, furthermore, gender, generate, generation, globe, goal, grade, grant, guarantee, guideline, hence, hierarchy, highlight, hypothesis, identical, identify, ideology, ignorance, illustrate, image, immigrate, impact, implement, implicate, implicit, imply, impose, incentive, incidence, incline, income, incorporate, index, indicate, individual, induce, inevitable, infer, infrastructure, inherent, inhibit, initial, initiate, injure, innovate, input, insert, insight, inspect, instance, institute, instruct, integral, integrate, integrity, intelligence, intense, interact, intermediate, internal, interpret, interval, intervene, intrinsic, invest, investigate, invoke, involve, isolate, issue, item, job, journal, justify, label, labour, layer, lecture, legal, legislate, levy, liberal, licence, likewise, link, locate, logic, maintain, major, manipulate, manual, margin, mature, maximise, mechanism, media, mediate, medical, medium, mental, method, migrate, military, minimal, minimise, minimum, ministry, minor, mode, modify, monitor, motive, mutual, negate, network, neutral, nevertheless, nonetheless, norm, normal, notion, notwithstanding, nuclear, objective, obtain, obvious, occupy, occur, odd, offset, ongoing, option, orient, outcome, output, overall, overlap, overseas, panel, paradigm, paragraph, parallel, parameter, participate, partner, passive, perceive, percent, period, persist, perspective, phase, phenomenon, philosophy, physical, plus, policy, portion, pose, positive, potential, practitioner, precede, precise, predict, predominant, preliminary, presume, previous, primary, prime, principal, principle, prior, priority, proceed, process, professional, prohibit, project, promote, proportion, prospect, protocol, psychology, publication, publish, purchase, pursue, qualitative, quote, radical, random, range, ratio, rational, react, recover, refine, regime, region, register, regulate, reinforce, reject, relax, release, relevant, reluctance, rely, remove, require, research, reside, resolve, resource, respond, restore, restrain, restrict, retain, reveal, revenue, reverse, revise, revolution, rigid, role, route, scenario, schedule, scheme, scope, section, sector, secure, seek, select, sequence, series, sex, shift, significant, similar, simulate, site, so‑called, sole, somewhat, source, specific, specify, sphere, stable, statistic, status, straightforward, strategy, stress, structure, style, submit, subordinate, subsequent, subsidy, substitute, successor, sufficient, sum, summary, supplement, survey, survive, suspend, sustain, symbol, tape, target, task, team, technical, technique, technology, temporary, tense, terminate, text, theme, theory, thereby, thesis, topic, trace, tradition, transfer, transform, transit, transmit, transport, trend, trigger, ultimate, undergo, underlie, undertake, uniform, unify, unique, utilise, valid, vary, vehicle, version, via, violate, virtual, visible, vision, visual, volume, voluntary, welfare, whereas, whereby, widespread.

This list of 570 headwords, which forms the Academic Word List (AWL), was developed by Averil Coxhead as her MA thesis at the School of Linguistics and Applied Language Studies at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. See Academic Word List for more information. These words are commonly found in academic texts and are invaluable for teachers preparing learners for tertiary level study or for students studying at tertiary institutions.

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