My Dad’s love of words, and the effect on me!

Charles (Chas) Hayden

Over the years, I have been very much inspired by my father (Charles Stanley Hayden). He had a great fascination for words and at the meal table he often quizzed the family on aspects of vocabulary. He loved doing crosswords and seemed to do them most days. From an early age, I remember dad working on the New Zealand Herald crossword puzzle. He would call out clues to get me and other family members involved in the activity. He loved words, especially the rarer ones.

He tried his best to do anagram crossword puzzles but he just couldn’t get the hang of them. One of his friends at school was Mr Clyde Vautier of Gisborne, who went on to complete his BA at Victoria University in Wellington. When I was a boy I recall Mr Vautier visiting us in Tauranga and giving dad tips on how to do this type of crossword, but to no long-term avail!

At school, I had to write essays. In those days, English wasn’t my strong subject: I was a “science man”. (As a 12 year old, I managed to find the formula for gunpowder in a library book, and proceeded to make it in a test-tube at home. My ingredients weren’t very pure and the experiment was a failure, very fortunately, otherwise I probably wouldn’t be here to tell the tale.) But I diverge from the essay writing. I couldn’t get inspired to write the essay so I asked dad if he could help me. He did. I think a lot of the essay was written by him, although it was in my handwriting. But when I got it back from the teacher, the teacher was quite surprised at all the big words that “I” had come up with. I think he may have suspected I’d had some help. (I learnt my lesson on plagiarism then, and as far as I know I’ve never indulged in it since!) One word I remember my dad loved to use was the word ‘pertain’ even although much more common words would do just as well!

Looking back, it’s surprising that my dad was so good at English, and vocabulary in particular, though he had only gone up to Standard 6 or 7 (age 12) at school. But he loved to read. One of his favourite books was the historical novel, Mutiny on the Bounty (published in 1932, when dad was 18 years old), based on the mutiny against Captain William Bligh in 1789.

My dad’s fascination with words seemed to have rubbed off onto me: a few years back I completed an MA (Applied Linguistics) thesis on “The Linguistic Ecology of Academic Words in Different Subject Fields”[1]. I dedicated that piece of work to my dad, as he had died a few months prior to my completing it. Since that time, I have dedicated much of my life to helping students in the Middle East, Asia and New Zealand to enhance their proficiency in written and spoken English.

[1] Hayden, R. (1995). The linguistic ecology of academic words in different subject fields (Master’s thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand). Retrieved from


Can I get a third party to proofread my university thesis?

Students are sometimes hesitant to employ a proofreader to check their thesis or dissertation. I have looked through the policies of universities in New Zealand, and have discovered that the universities themselves expect, and even encourage, students to get people other than themselves to proofread their work. However, each university has a slightly different policy about third party proofreaders, and what they can and can’t do.

The universities whose policies I examined are: University of Waikato, University of Auckland, Auckland University of Technology, Victoria University of Wellington, and University of Otago.

For details of their policies refer to the following webpage on this site: Policies on Proofreading Theses.

Note well that when proofreading your work I will make sure I meet the requirements of your university or institution, whether it is in New Zealand or anywhere else. See home page for details: Professional Document Editing.

How to proofread your thesis or other document

The final stage of the writing process before submitting an assignment or thesis is often neglected – proofreading! And, if it’s done well, it can significantly lift your grades (see Testimonials for examples of this).

Set aside time to check your assignment or thesis. As a guideline, allow 5 to 10 minutes per page (about 250 words per page if double spaced lines).

Try to complete your assignment or thesis well ahead of the due date. This will give you a chance to ‘recover’ from the writing process, and so be able to look at the document more objectively.

Check for the following (these are just some of the features to include when proofreading!):

• grammar – noun verb agreement, correct and consistent verb tense
• spelling – use the software spellchecker, but be careful of words often confused, and homophones (see Homophones).
• punctuation – apostrophes, dashes, commas, colons, semicolons, capitals
• vocabulary – consider your choice of words and see whether they are technical words, subject-specific language, slang, or idioms, and change them if necessary; also check abbreviations (Have you defined them when you first used them?).
• readability – when you read it through, do you have to read the same sentence through more than once to get its meaning? If so, then shorten, or change it.
• cohesion – how well do sentences and paragraphs link with those before and after? Make use of appropriate linking words, for example, see Linking Words, to ensure it flows smoothly.
• references – make sure that authors’ names are spelled correctly, within the body of the assignment or thesis, and in the list of references at the end.

Lastly check that your assignment or thesis meets the requirements of your university. This means checking font style and size, line spacing, and the type of referencing (Vancouver, APA 6th, …).

If you still need help after doing all this, then do get in touch – Enquiry – and I will do my best for you.

Proofreading using Microsoft Word’s Track Changes Feature

The following slides show how Microsoft Word’s Track Changes feature can be used to record suggested changes to a document, as well as comment on how other improvements could be made.

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If you would like me to demonstrate how your document would look after the above process, please click here: Enquiry



Homophones are words which have the same pronunciation but different meaning and usually, different spelling. For example, their/there; no/know. For this reason it is very easy to confuse them and use the wrong one. In such cases, computer spell checkers won’t help you much at all. This is where you really need someone else to read what you have written (CLICK HERE for details).

Poets deliberately choose words with this quality for special effect. See if you can follow the meaning of these poems.


I have a spelling checker.
It came with my PC.
It plane lee marks four my revue
Miss steaks aye can knot sea.

Eye ran this poem threw it,
Your sure reel glad two no.
Its vary polished inn it’s weigh.
My checker tolled me sew.

A checker is a bless sing,
It freeze yew lodes of thyme.
It helps me right awl stiles two reed,
And aides me when aye rime.

Each frays come posed up on my screen
Eye trussed too bee a joule.
The checker pours o’er every word
To cheque sum spelling rule.

Bee fore a veiling checkers
Hour spelling mite decline,
And if we’re lacks oar have a laps,
We wood bee maid too wine.

Butt now bee cause my spelling
Is checked with such grate flare,
Their are know faults with in my cite,
Of nun eye am a wear.

Now spelling does knot phase me,
It does knot bring a tier.
My pay purrs awl due glad den
With wrapped words fare as hear.

To rite with care is quite a feet
Of witch won should bee proud,
And wee mussed dew the best wee can,
Sew flaws are knot aloud.

Sow ewe can sea why aye dew prays
Such soft wear four pea seas,
And why eye brake in two averse
Buy righting want too pleas.

Jerry Zar, 29 June 1992

In the above poem, by the author’s count, 123 of the 225 words are incorrect (although all words are correctly spelled).

Here’s another poem which focuses on two words which are homophones of each other.

Whether the weather be fine²

Whether the weather be fine,
Or whether the weather be not,
Whether the weather be cold,
Or whether the weather be hot,
We’ll weather the weather,
Whatever the weather,
Whether we like it or not.

More Homophones

If you want to find out more about homophones, look at the following website which boasts having a complete list of homophones!


² Author unknown.

Have your document edited for homophones! Click here.

How can you increase your vocabulary?

How can you increase your vocabulary? Being in the ‘English’ industry, people often ask how they can increase their vocabulary, how they can learn new words.

There are many apps around which users feel will help build their word power, and maybe they do. Apps like Boggle, and its derivatives are great to use the words you know. But I’d like to draw to your attention to two online websites/programmes which I think are even better for building your vocabulary. They are Free Rice and

Free Rice is a site which my colleagues and I sometimes recommend to those who want to learn new words. The reason for the name – Free Rice – is that every word you get correct increases your ‘store’ of rice by 10 grains, which are actually donated to hungry people through the United Nations World Food Programme, or goes towards providing free education to those who in need through sponsors of the website. Free Rice vocabulary testing covers a wide range of fields including: the humanities – famous paintings, literature, world hunger, famous quotations; English – vocabulary & grammar; math/maths – multiplication table, basic math (pre-algebra); chemistry – chemical symbols, chemical symbols (basic); language learning – German, Spanish, French, Italian, Latin; geography – world landmarks, identify countries on the map, world capitals, flags of the world; sciences – human anatomy; and test preparation for SAT®.

Such websites do help to boost a person’s understanding of words. However, there is much more to knowing a word than remembering its synonyms or its meaning or definition. One website that does focus very well on many of the other areas involved in knowing a word is Not only does it highlight which words you don’t know, but it also teaches you essential English words in a stimulating way. Using adaptive technology it adjusts the new words it gives you based on how well you have done to date. It will keep coming back to you with words you haven’t ‘got’ until you do! Even when you think you know how a word is spelled, how it is used in a sentence, what other words it is associated with and of course its meaning, then it will surprise you at some future occasion and see if you still retain it!

Another way of developing your vocabulary is through extensive reading. Research shows that you will only remember a new word if you meet it at least eight times in reasonably quick succession. Read books, magazines, articles, blogs or whatever, that you are interested in and you will surely build your vocabulary.

Transition Words and Phrases, and Coordinating Conjunctions

Are you tired of using the same linking words in your essays and assignments?

I recently came across this list of  Transition words and phrases. It will surely give you the variety you are looking for. Here are the main categories of words and phrases, with a selection of examples:

  • Agreement / Addition / Similarity e.g. not only … but also, as a matter of fact, in like manner, in addition
  • Opposition / Limitation / Contradiction e.g. on the other hand, on the contrary, at the same time, in spite of
  • Cause / Condition / Purpose e.g. with this intention, with this in mind, in the hope that, to the end that
  • Examples / Support / Emphasis e.g. certainly, surely, markedly, especially, specifically
  • Effect / Consequence / Result e.g. for this reason, thus, then, hence, consequently
  • Conclusion / Summary / Restatement e.g. in a word, for the most part, in fact, in summary, in conclusion, in brief, to summarise
  • Time / Chronology / Sequence e.g. in the meantime, all of a sudden, immediately, finally, formerly, henceforth
  • Space / Location / Place e.g. adjacent to, opposite to, here, over, beyond, wherever, alongside, among, beneath

Download it out, print it out and keep it in front of you as you write!

Transition words and phrases


Punctuation Matters


In today’s post, and subsequent ones, I will be referring to aspects of writing which really do matter. Today, it’s Punctuation (that) Matters!


How would you punctuate the following sentence?

A woman without her man is nothing

Punctuation marks can be added in two ways:

A woman, without her man, is nothing.


A woman: without her, man is nothing.

They each have quite a different meaning!

Why do we punctuate?

One answer to this question is that punctuation marks are added to remove ambiguity. Whether in legal documents or university assignments wrong punctuation can cost money or marks.

Another approach suggests that as few punctuation marks as possible should be used. According to this approach adding punctuation marks adds to ambiguity.

Whatever approach you use it is important that the meaning is clear. Punctuation should also make the text easy to read.

Where do we put punctuation marks?

  • At the end of sentences.

There are four punctuation marks which are used at the end of sentences:

    • the full stop (period)

For example:

It was lovely to see you the other day.

    • the thrice repeated full stop (…) indicating ellipsis has occurred

For example:

Near the end of his new product presentations, Steve Jobs of Apple Mac fame used to say “And one more thing…”.

    • the question mark (?)

For example:

What is the maximum load on the beam?

    • the exclamation mark (!)

For example:

Wow! That’s amazing!

  • Within sentences.

Most other punctuation marks are used within sentences. For example, commas, colons, semicolons, apostrophes, and brackets.

In future posts I will go into more detail about the use of punctuation marks.

Make sure the meaning of your document is clear. Why not get your document edited: (CLICK HERE for details). Be sure you are using correct punctuation.

Proofreading scanned documents

Digitising a company’s files is an integral part of record keeping and archiving these days. Sometimes these files need to be converted to text and not just kept in an image format. There are many programmes which convert images (TIFF, JPG, etc.) to editable text using OCR, Optical Character Recognition. This is not a foolproof process, and after this has been done, spell checking and other error checking will need to be done. As mentioned in Homophones, some words may be spelled correctly, but they may be the wrong words for the sentence.

Thus, for important business documents, having human eyes read it through to make sure it is the same as the original is absolutely essential. This is a service that I offer: proofreading your business or other documents to make sure they are the same as the scanned original document.

If you would like me to give you a quote, do get in touch. My service is confidential. Complete the following form and I will get back to you.

I look forward to working with you on your project.

Capital Letters Matter

Capital Letters

Today’s post focuses on Capital Letters. In written English there are several rules controlling the use of capital letters. These include the following:

  • the first letter of a sentence is always capitalised

For example: Locals say that the fort was built by Portuguese soldiers.

  • names of people, countries, nationalities, places, organisations, days, months, titles of address always start with capital letters

For example:

In Dhofar, the southernmost region of the Sultanate of Oman, monsoon rains generally fall from late June until the end of August.

In 1963 the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his “I have a dream speech”.

  • the personal pronoun, I, is always capitalised

For example: Yung Yung and I discussed the timing of the OCF meeting.

  • titles of books, songs, movies have the content words capitalised

For example: Khan is King

Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind

A Tale of Two Cities

How Great Thou Art

  • abbreviations

For example: OECD, UNTSO, NGO

If you have a document you need proofread use our no-obligation assessment service (CLICK HERE for details), including checking for capitals!.